Written by: Ir. Winarno Tohir (Chairperson of KTNA) and Dr. Edi Santosa, S.P., M.Sc., (Board of Experts of PPSN).
The Agriculture Concept 4.0 was born in 2015 inspired by the concept of Industry 4.0 which was born in 2013. The 4.0 Industry Concept was born in Germany that put forward information technology in the industrial process.
Increasing the need for higher agricultural yields with better environmental quality protection has led to the birth of a movement of “increasing yields with lower impacts”. The movement in Europe is known as “Smart Farming” or smart farming with the term Agriculture 4.0. The notion of Agriculture 4.0 attracted the attention of agricultural actors in supporting the development of modern agriculture. Agriculture 4.0 is precision agriculture combined with digital information technology that is primarily supported by big data, mobile internet and cloud computing.
In the course of agriculture, advances in production technology can be grouped based on ideas developed. Traditional agriculture can be considered as Agriculture 1.0. Followed by the use of mechanical tools or mechanical farming called Agriculture 2.0. The next stage is information system-based agriculture called Agriculture 3.0. How can the 4.0 agricultural model fit the Indonesian agricultural model which is currently dominated by the issue of welfare of agricultural actors that is still low and the average area of land ownership is narrow? What are the conditions that must be met so that Agriculture 4.0 can match Indonesia’s natural conditions.
The birth of precision farming began with the idea in 1994 by John Deere’s Precision Farming group at Moline-Iowa USA (https://spectrum.ieee.org) through the use of tractors. Then in 1995, Rockwell International Corp. Using GPS installed on the harvesting device to make a garden detail map accompanied by harvest data. In this way, more fertile land can be mapped. Next, farmers can determine the type of soil and fertilization and pesticides that are more specific for each location.
Precision agriculture is farming with the right inputs and techniques so that there is no waste of resources. This technique has been developed by many farmers, according to its name precision = precision = right, farmers carry out appropriate cultivation practices based on the information they receive.
With precision farming, farmers cultivate the land, plant, care, harvest crops precisely. It is done with the help of digital technology tools that help farmers be able to calculate the exact spacing, the exact needs of seeds and fertilizers, the age of harvest and the right amount of harvest. It was accompanied by the use of smart machines.
Farmers, for example, can harvest radishes in bulk quantities and clean directly turnips in a machine running on harvesting machines that move on the land. Farmers can also determine which area of wheat is ready for harvest, which one is harvested next, and so on. Therefore precision farming makes productivity of agricultural products higher, more quality, and more efficient. Indonesia should also lead to preservation farming.
One of the main components is weather information. In Japan, farmers who do not follow the weather forecast information can be disastrous. Plants are damaged by storm rains, snowfall, or strong winds. Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) weather forecast accuracy is a reference for farmers to take anticipatory actions. JMA’s task is to release information, including storm rain. Immediately the farmers prepare all equipment to protect the plants. Greenhouse owners, for example, immediately cover the plastic on the roof of the building so that the plants inside are protected from damage caused by rain.
Precision farming for welfare
Precision agriculture can overcome the high cost of production. The cost of rice production in Indonesia is Rp4,079 / kg. Rice production costs in China Rp. 3,661 / kg; India Rp. 306 / kg; Thailand Rp.2,291 / kg; and Vietnam production costs Rp1,619 / kg. This means that when compared with Vietnam, for example, our rice production costs are 2 times higher. Of the Rp4,079 / kg value of Rp1,380 (33.8%) to pay for casual laborers and family workers, the cost of land rent was Rp1,719 (42.1%), the remaining costs were saprotan costs.
Components that need to be improved in order to support precision agriculture are 10 components. First, seeds. Seed selection must be on the right location, right climatic conditions, right environmental conditions. Maps of flood and drought locations and pest and disease endemic areas have been known by the Ministry of Agriculture’s Research and Development Agency, making it easier to make production maps with various policies. The Meteorology and Geophysics Agency (BMG) released changes in the season. This is what farmers use to decide the right seed selection. Some are drought resistant, flood resistant, resistant to high salinity, resistant to certain pests and diseases, and resistant to seasonal changes.
Second, land processing. Originally because I wanted to be economical in the Gadu season and poorly, the farmers only cleared the harvested straw and immediately planted the rice fields without processing the land. As a result, production is low, when the Gadu is only 4.5 to 5 tons per ha, when it is 6 to 7 tons per ha. The land should be processed by hijacking as in the 10 Supra Insus techniques. Among them is perfect land processing by plowing two times cross and harrowing.
Third, regulating the irrigation system. Irrigation systems in rice plants should not be inundated. Inundation aims to grow weeds, but the growth of rice plants is also depressed. After all it’s wasteful. It is recommended that the macak-macak irrigation system as has been done at SRI (System Rice Intensification). In Japan there is no flood of rice fields. Enough water is just passed through, the important thing is wet soil. Its characteristics when we walk on it the soil collapses until it is as thick. SRI saves water as well as seeds with higher yields. Use of frugal seeds because one planting hole is enough for one seed. Seedlings are transplanted into the rice fields from seedlings at the age of 7 days when the roots have not elongated so that production is optimal. Yields with the SRI system can be above 7 tons per hectare dry milled (GKG) compared to conventional systems of 5-6 tons per ha MPD.
Fourth, how to plant. So far, farmers know how to plant tandur (backward planting) and tanju (plant forward using ticks). Now use the Legowo system, it is recommended to choose Legowo 2. Namely 2 rice rows are intersected with 1 blank line and so on with a spacing of 20 cm x 20 cm and a loose 25 cm. In the brown planthopper attack, rice with legowo system was relatively safe. That’s because the humidity is relatively dry. Without legowo, the humidity in the surrounding area becomes high which is a favorite of planthoppers.
Fifth, proper fertilization. To fertilize properly, farmers must do soil sample analysis. Now many simple soil laboratories are easily accessible. Lab test results will be found out of macro and micro nutrients contained in the soil. The results are brought to the fertilizer industry to produce fertilizer according to the needs of farmers.
Sixth, the use of pesticides is wise. Pesticides are used only when the disease attacks the economic threshold. For example in the attack of leafhoppers, 3 leafhoppers per stem have been found. Another more natural way is to apply refogia technology. Based on the results of a study by the World Food Agency (FAO) in Indonesia, refogia is able to suppress pest attacks. This technology is planting colorful flower plants in galengan sawah as a home of natural predators. The types are like sunflowers and sunflowers.
Seventh, harvest technique. Harvesting techniques that are carried out now are expensive and have high yield losses, up to 9-10.5%. Rice is lost when the stem is harvested with sickle. The shock of sickles can cause loss. Not to mention when being beaten there was rice lost because it was thrown out. With the engine, yield loss is only 2-3%.
Eight, the last by forming a Farmer-Owned Enterprise (BUMP) to overcome the problem of low land ownership and the small portion of farmers’ income. With 0.35 ha of land ownership, with any instruments such as raising fertilizer subsidies or raising people’s purchase prices, the welfare of farmers has not yet been achieved. So far, farmers sell crops in the form of unhulled rice and immediately receive payments for government purchases (HPP) of Rp 3,700 per kg, which is the value that is brought home.
Compare that with farmers in Thailand. They process grain into heat that drives electric turbines. Electricity is used alone and sold to state electricity companies. Husk is processed into carbon, bran becomes ricebrand oil, the pulp becomes healthy food high in vitamin B. So they don’t just get money from grain payments. In Vietnam groats are processed into flour to make noodles, in China straw is processed into an anti-fire board.
BUMP is a model for the welfare of farmers with initial support in the form of capital and technology. Every 50-100 thousand ha, it is necessary to have a rice industrial area equipped with industrial machinery, such as a turbine engine with chaff fuel power plants, a straw press machine with heating for planking, a pulley press machine, a rice brand oil, a flour machine for processing grooves. rice flour, carbon processing machines (husk charcoal processing). All machines must be in one area. BUMP is owned by 99% of the government and 1% of farmers.
Nine, agricultural extension workers have also been reduced so that farmers have no assistance in the field. KTNA has prepared self-help extension agents to assist farmers in villages.
Ten, Agricultural Insurance is very beneficial for farmers in the era of global climate change. Because even though we have tried in various ways, but because agriculture is directly related to nature, so all possibilities of failure can be when suddenly a tornado occurs, there is no rain / drought and very much rain / flood. The farmer who enters Agricultural Insurance who only pays 20 percent of his premium from IDR 6 million worth IDR 36 thousand because the 80 percent is subsidized by the government, if there is a failure the rice harvest will get IDR 6 million / ha.